Spatial Planning has become something of utmost importance in the present day society. It
provides the real estate companies with a perfect idea about the needs of common populace.
We live in an era of supply and demand. Thus, the limited resources; sex, age and income is
not enough to meet the needs of a consumer. For an utterly successful real estate investment,
one must understand the needs of a consumer. Real estate companies must consider the
factors like the lifestyle, style statement, recreational needs to attract the consumer base. That
is why the spatial planning is required as it gives us the perfect idea about the choices of the
Spatial planning can be considered as a theory as well as a practice. It has wide range of
theories, Meta theories and middle ranged theories that govern the principles of spatial
planning. But the main challenge is to identify where the concept of spatial planning sits in
this theoretical background and how this theoretical background can be effectively used in
the actual field thereby providing a general outline of the necessary requirements of the
Spatial Planning Policy or (SPP) as it is often abbreviated as in the national context.
The Spatial Planning was formally introduced to Scotland with the passing of the Planning
and Compulsory Purchase Act (Scotland) in the year 2004 (Adams, Cotella& Nunes, 2012).
Although there was an idea of spatial planning but this was the first time when it was brought
up in the context of the nation. This Spatial planning reform of 2004 made a significant
change in the style of planning in Scotland and turned the planning policy of the local
governance from a bunch of textbook rules to a fully functional and optimal delivery system.
In this paper, we shall try to unravel the concept of spatial planning and its significance in the
planning policies of a nation thereby identifying the requirements of the successful
implementation of Spatial Planning Policy or SPP in the infrastructure of a nation.
Theories vary from type to type thus variation also comes in their roles. Everything that has
been written about spatial planning can be called “intuitionism” or normative, which is
fixated on identifying what the spatial planning policies ought to be by basing the judgement
on the moral facts and equitable principles (Alexander, 2009).
There is another approach to the spatial planning which is based on the facts and regulations
of political dimensions. This theoretical approach describes the Spatial planning as a
structuralism way of planning. This approach argues that the outcome of every planning
process has a redistributive nature in relation to the class and power distribution. This way to
deal with planning hypothesis does not focus on the process but instead judges whether it has
been fruitful inside its hypothetical structure. Those examining spatial planning hypothesis
inside a political setting are more worried to take a gander at the cooperation between spatial
planning and the levels of conveyance practiced inside it by political process (Massey et al.
2003; Sandercock 2003; Friedmann 2005). This theoretical approach engulfs in it all formal
as well as informal political processes along with all the interests of power for those owning
properties and major capitals. As per the hypothetical positions, spatial planning is for the
most part set inside the regulating mode, although much of the time neglecting to meet the
normal results of coordinating multi-scalar activities.
Spatial Planning gives the land organizations an impeccable thought regarding the
requirements of the people. We live in a period of free market activity(citation needed).Along
these lines, the ordinary variables like sex, age and wage are insufficient to address the issues
of a shopper. For an absolutely fruitful land wander, one must comprehend the necessities of
a buyer. Land organizations must consider the variables like the way of life, style articulation,
recreational necessities, to pull in the buyer base. That is the reason the spatial planning is
required as it gives us the ideal thought regarding the decisions of the people living in those
Spatial planning can be considered as a hypothesis and additionally a practice. Be that as it
may, the primary test is to distinguish where the idea of spatial planning sits in this
hypothetical foundation and how this hypothetical foundation can be adequately utilized as a
part of the real field along these lines giving a general diagram of the essential necessities of
the Spatial Planning Policy or SPP as it is frequently condensed as in the national setting
(Wilson & Piper, 2010).
The Spatial Planning was formally acquainted with the way of life of Scotland with the death
of the Planning and Compulsory Purchase Act (Scotland) in the year 2004 (Adams, Cotella &
Nunes, 2012). In spite of the fact that there was a thought of spatial planning yet, this was the
first run through when it was raised with regards to the country. This Spatial planning change
of 2004 rolled out a huge improvement in the style of planning in Scotland and turned the
planning approach of the nearby administration from a cluster of course book standards to a
highly functional and optimal delivery framework (Adams, Cotella & Nunes, 2012).
In this paper, we should attempt to unwind the idea of spatial planning and its worthiness in
planning arrangements of a country subsequently distinguishing the prerequisites of the
fruitful usage of Spatial Planning Policy or SPP in the foundation of a country. In this
procedure, we might totally concentrate on the spatial planning arrangements of Scotlandand
will attempt to comprehend and break down the degree up to which these criteria are
accomplished by the planning arrangement of the administration of Scotland. To complete
this essay report, we would be discussing about the importance of Spatial planning, its benefit
(social economic and environmental). It is also important to discuss the need of effective
spatial planning in a nation and the reasons for the effective spatial planning system for
Scotland. These discussions has been divided into sub headings and it has been briefly
discussed under such headings.
Spatial Planning and its importance
Spatial Planning is the term that deals with “the constraints of integration or cooperation of
the spatial facet of the developmental policies through a land-based strategy” (Cullingworth,
It is something more complex than simple land alocation and use; it deals with the policies of
different sectors regarding territories, environmental issues, aesthetic value of a place and
several other issues. The main reason behind the spatial planning is to provide a more rational
and transparent way of planning policies and to promote the settlement of competing targets.
Although the reasons or extent of the spatial planning differs from one nation to another but
the basic motive behind it always remain the same. In all most every country the term spatial
planning is synonymous with the identification of the long and short-term objectives of the
planning policies for their territories, the land use policies and development of certain sectors
of the local government and the cooperative sector policies like transportation, environmental
issues and agriculture. (Koresawa & Konvitz, 2001)
The Scottish Government defines the spatial planning as a way of going beyond the
traditional land use planning in order to integrate innovative polices for mass development
and land use which can produce a positive impact on the environment and core functioning of
a particular place (Alexander, 2009).
A nation can derive three major benefits from the spatial planning which are; Social benefits,
economic benefits and environmental benefits. Let’s review these benefits individually to
understand the requirements of an effective spatial planning policy:
During spatial planning local communities are being considered while developing policies
and their implementation. Consideration of the accessibility to the people while developing a
new location. For example: The convenience of the location to the people in terms of
transportation, distance from their work place and how easily can they reach the newly
developed location is considered during the planning process. Development of the
infrastructure of the local facilities by solving the problems they are facing. Helping the
initiative of creating a safe, peaceful and healthy environment (Allmendinger & Haughton,
2009) is also a social benefit which can be derived out of spatial planning.
Spatial planning provides multitude of economical benefits to the society. Creating a stable
socio-economic condition for fostering new investments is one of the main aim behind the
spatial planning process. Identifying the lands in new secured locations to bolster the
economic development can be achieved through a proper planning procedure. Ensuring the
community and the investors that the land is in good location in relation to the transportation
chain and labours is an important task that effective spatial planning performs. Analysing the
needs of the local community and facilitating proper development to meet their requirements.
Promotion of renewal as well as regeneration is an important aspect of spatial planning
process. Facilitating the process of taking decisions in a more consistent as well as efficient
way can be achieved through spatial planning process (Erbe, MacGillivray & Williams,
Encouraging the regeneration or renewal and proper usage of lands, buildings or
infrastructures is one of the main aims of effective spatial planning. Encouraging the use of
brown-field lands for the development purposes rather than taking on Greenfield lands can be
enhanced with effective spatial planning. Conservation of the assets of great historical,
environmental or cultural importance is an important benefit that can be derived. Providing a
much better protection against the natural disasters or great environmental risks like
degradation of air quality and floods can be ensured if an effective spatial planning process
can be achieved. Ensuring the proper protection and development of the recreational sites and
natural heritages is of utmost importance and can only be achieved through spatial planning
procedures. Ensuring the proper access to all kinds of developments by every mode of
transportation rather than just relying on the cars. Promoting the energy efficiency in he
blueprints and designs of the new developments (Erbe, MacGillivray & Williams, 2012).
Need for effective spatial planning in a nation
An effective spatial planning provides the community several benefits. It helps in creating a
better and safer environment for everyone to live. The spatial planning promotes the proper
development of the transportation and land use thereby increasing the facilities for the local
communities to prosper (Gordon &Barron, 2011).
Effective spatial planning is required to give vision and reliable bearing, and in addition, a
vital evaluation of what is attractive as well as what is conceivable in different settings; to
secure the privileges of individuals. When common people gain access to the developing,
basically they get certain rights and commitments. It is important to oversee change in a
manner that those rights and commitments are regarded.
Spatial Planning is something of great importance because it ensures common frameworks.
Characteristic frameworks have their own particular operational prerequisites which must be
regarded if long haul reasonable human advancement is to be accomplished and if substantial
scale environment debasement is to be maintained a strategic distance from or if nothing else
minimized (Kelly, et al 2014), which means that only through a proper spatial planning
process true progress of the society towards a better future can be achieved.
Effective spatial planning is of uttermost need to make productive utilization of assets.
Assets, for example, lands, water, vitality, fund, building materials, abilities, and so forth are
hard to find. Those that are accessible must, in all unique situations, be utilized wisely to
guarantee that greatest advantage is acquired from them; to accomplish a higher nature of
administration convenience by all circles of government.
A nation needs effective spatial planning to arrange activities and investments to guarantee
greatest positive effect from the speculation of assets, it is important to organize activities and
interests in time and space. This coordination is of two sorts: the coordination of various
types of open power activities and speculations, and a more prominent coordination amongst
open and private activities; to set needs. To empower noteworthy advances to be made in
meeting the formative needs of the nation reasonably, it is important to give a judicious
premise to prioritization and to oversee and guide assets to where they are required most
(Lloyd & Purves, 2009); to avoid duplication of the policies of various departments and
circles of government.
Reasons for the effective spatial planning system for any national context
The researchers of spatial planning have highlighted the following requirements for effective
spatial planning are to accomplish a more noteworthy blend of land uses and developments in
the city structure that give a full scope of development of the urban capacities – lodging,
business, and administrations – as an example which minimizes the need to travel incredible
distances to work, shop or business organisations. The effective utilization of land should be
good with the social prosperity and healthy environment of the recreational destinations
Spatial Planning requires starting urban development in the poorly developed parts of city
territories and major roads with high-traffic centralizations of people from different sectors of
work such as private and public sectors as well as local residents. These regions with
sufficient interest in modernization and renovation of the current scenario as well as
infrastructure can give housing facilities nearer to the work place and a more extensive scope
of the way of various life styles (Moseley, 2013).
To achieve an effective spatial planning process, it is required to upgrade and bolster
recovery of lodging homes through innovative financing, innovative and administrative
activities, and showing investments. Concentrating on the end of obstructions towards
investment will encourage little scale urban reestablishment through different endeavours and
Nations need to upgrade expensive investment, enhance group inclusion and regulatory
empowerment for demonstrative planning approaches and projects; to promote the identity of
communities through the development of meeting spots, open spaces, pedestrian systems,
protection of memorable structures and appealing streetscapes for achieving an effective
spatial planning module.
To give a scope of social and recreational opportunities to the communitywhich is as
important as various other needs through the effective utilization of natural territories for
passive amusement and social purposes; to keep up an arrangement of coordinated and
interconnected open spaces, parks, stream valleys, and waterfronts; to ensure the protection
of the common natural surroundings and assets in these areas is the one of the main
requirements of effective spatial planning (Tewdwr-Jones, Gallent & Morphet, 2010).
To provide proper water and sewerage infrastructure that suits the requirements of the local
community, while meeting the sound environment objectives; to attempt the impressive
change of existing framework to lessen the measure of untreated urban overflow and
wastewater release; to expand the limit of the current framework to oblige urban development
and escalation is also required for proper planning.
Countries need to enhance and extend the transportation framework to meet the requirements
of rearrangement in the urban economy and to maintain the competitiveness of the public
transport. To boost productivity, supplement customary public transport with particular
administrative measures coordinated at particular market places; to develop energy efficiency
and other modes of transport (Smith, et al 2011).
Necessary Criteria for effective spatial planning for any nation
There are some necessary criteria for achieving maximum efficiency in the spatial planning
for any nation. The criteria are:
Tools for planning
All nations require a base arrangement of planning instruments that empower successful and
reasonable administration of spatial improvement on the premise of concurred criteria. In
several countried past ways of dealing with planning are currently thought to be too much
definite and prescriptive, utilizing a top-down, far-reaching approach that expect a doubtful
level of open control over the private activity. These unbending arrangements are hard to get
ready and stay up with the latest. They require escalated inputs and restrain planning powers
reacting properly to open doors as they emerge (Smith, et al 2011). The key is to accomplish
a proper harmony amongst duty and adaptability – knowing which needs should be tended to
quickly and which needs could be met over a more extended course of events. The
apparatuses must work in an integral and predictable approach to guarantee both a proactive
and facilitated way to deal with overseeing advancement and reasonableness, responsibility
and straightforwardness in the basic leadership handle. It is especially essential that planning
instruments (arrangements) are viewed as corporate records possessed by all divisions of
government and as opposed to as an outside inconvenience. This implies they should be set
up in an open and community way.
Numerous nations have made essential changes to the assemblage of planning law in the
course of the most recent decade to empower critical changes to the shape and operation of
their planning frameworks. For instance, Ireland, the Netherlands, Slovenia and the United
Kingdom have of late sanctioned huge changes to planning law (Morphet, 2010). Be that as it
may, in a few nations planning statutes have not kept pace with the truth of spatial
improvement and the weights on the framework. The issue is however not the absence of
enactment but instead that it is no more drawn out pertinent. The lawful prerequisites for
specific arrangements and methods (which are regularly goal-oriented) might be out of an
investment with what is really required, in this way bringing about lost validity for the spatial
planning framework and the ensuing diminishment of the benefit of planning exercises. Now
and again, change of planning law has not been a major requirement. For instance, where
enactment has focused on monetary change or matters identifying with EU promotion, viable
activity on spatial improvement at the sum total of what levels has been extremely impeded
in light of the fact that the essential lawful building squares to encourage compelling spatial
planning are not set up (Counsell, et al 2006).
Proper decision making process
Strategies and choices ought to regress wherever conceivable and be made cooperatively with
nearby partners and financial specialists. Regardless, there are basic issues that should be
chosen in a top-down way, hence guaranteeing definitive and unambiguous results. This
might be required to address a pressing issue, an issue of global centrality or undesirable
theoretical movement, or to convey a conclusion to neighbourhood debate and strife.
Illustrations may incorporate the need to: secure a territory of the basic normal capital, take
up a noteworthy internal investment opportunity, shield legacy resources from theoretical
exercises, or encourage a choice on a noteworthy vitality foundation advancement. There will
likewise be events when focal, best down choices are required in light of a legitimate concern
for decency to all, for example, on account of forcing basic advancement to arrive charges
over a whole nation.
National and local choices of this kind should tie on all levels and with all on-screen
characters and to take after a procedure that guarantees responsibility. These choices ought to
regard concurred arrangement proclamations wherever conceivable and be joined by clear
clarifications when they don’t. All levels of government ought to be offered a chance to have
an impact in the basic leadership prepare, e.g. through discussion on real foundation
investments, or through the chance to give prove where requests are being considered. Law
and arrangement need to clarify the criteria by which powers at the national level may
mediate in territorial and neighbourhood choices. For the most part, focal mediation in
choices regularly made at lower levels will be constrained to matters of national and
worldwide criticalness or issues of potential national contention (Smith, & Brennan, 2012).
An environmental assessment is a deliberate way to deal with measuring the ecological
effects of various development processes. Environmental assessment of development
processes and projects measures the manageability of those development works. In a few
nations, ecological evaluations interface financial and social ramifications of undertakings or
arrangements with the physical impacts that the development work is probably going to have
on the earth (Scottish Government Riaghaltas na h-Alba gov.scot, 2011).
In any of these structures, an ecological appraisal is an essential device for strategy
reconciliation. It can confirm if plans and projects are in congruity with each other, and
especially with national practical improvement targets. Ecological appraisal and vital natural
evaluation are presently regular practice for advancement activities, arranges, and programs
in a few nations. Much direction has been distributed on the most proficient method to lead
these procedures in ways that guarantee that they are a vital part of the basic leadership
handle and not a reconsideration to meet prerequisites (Shucksmith, et al, 2014). A few
nations have embraced ecological pay strategies that urge advancement to continue in a more
maintainable manner. It guarantees that all huge improvement meets the natural costs it
forces, by requiring repaying ecological speculation so that the net general impact is
nonpartisan, if not positive.
The ecological appraisal prepares for investments requires huge ability, assets, and
information. In any case, the general rule of assessing natural effects could be embraced in
less difficult structures utilizing proficient judgment. Where there is vulnerability about
effects or where there are inquiries that require more itemized evaluation, the preparatory
approach ought to be received. That is an improvement with possibly noteworthy unfriendly
ecological results that can’t be repaid ought to be maintained a strategic distance from or
occupied. A few nations have effectively adopted up to the general examination strategy and
apply it to a more standard advancements through straightforward agendas. Engineers can
contribute altogether to the environmental assessment handle by giving skill, data or assets
for the assessment (Shucksmith, et al, 2014).
The reason for spatial planning is to add to the conveyance of the results required by society
stronger economies for the local communities, more feasible improvement and a superior
personal satisfaction. Planning can finish these objectives by making and focusing investment
enthusiasm, enhancing and shielding area and property estimations, lessening dangers for
speculation by giving conviction, by tending to the externality impacts of existing and new
advancement. An essential strategy for execution is the control work – where it adds to the
conveyance of methodologies and planning systems. To expand the impact of execution
assignments, spatial planning frameworks should likewise grasp proactive components that
guarantee examples of improvement adding to these objectives (Shucksmith, et al, 2014). The
planning devices ought to supplement other financial instruments that convey improvement.
Coordination among divisions is especially essential. Monetary advancement and ecological
offices, specifically, should work cooperatively on spatial planning techniques. Encounter
proposes that there might be little attention to spatial planning in the monetary improvement
area, which is essentially intrigued by sectorial issues, for example, the formation of numbers
and sorts of employments or preparing places and additionally the amplifying productivity of
conveyance of merchandise and enterprises (Shucksmith, 2010). Be that as it may, a
compelling spatial planning methodology can enhance their investments by centralising and
consolidating exercises and organizing the regional measurement of advancement, including
the successful utilization of open land resources. The spatial planning framework ought to be
coordinated to recognize and address execution hindrances, particularly where this is
identified with organizing the exercises of various sectored partners in giving foundation.
Forces of mandatory obtaining of land and property ought to be firmly connected to receive
the spatial techniques and arrangements.
Spatial planning can influence financial values in land and property by empowering
investment, accordingly expanding the sureness speculators look for (Alexander, et al 2012).
New advancement can be utilized to give more extensive group and business benefits by
recovering and consolidating an extent of improvement esteem from various plans. This can
likewise guarantee that new improvement mitigates or makes up for its roundabout
consequences for different organizations and the nearby economy, by managing effect and
advancement pay expenses.
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
How the effective spatial planning is being achieved in the Scotland?
The spatial planning policies in Scotland are the most advanced among the nations of the
United Kingdom. The development of spatial planning policies has always been directed
towards modernising and ensuring the solutions for all the Scottish issues (Allmendinger
2009; Lloyd & Purves 2009).
The dream of effective spatial planning in Scotland is becoming reality by following the
directives of National Planning Framework (NPF2). The focal motivation behind the Scottish
Government is to increment practical monetary development. The Government Economic
Strategy (GES) clarifies that money related and different assets will be adjusted to guarantee
that approach advancement and spending projects are strongly centered around
accomplishing that reason and the testing focuses on the Government has set on the economic
strategies. This Framework takes forward the spatial parts of the Government Economic
Strategy, to guarantee that every part of the nation can play to its qualities in building a
Scotland that is wealthier and more attractive, more quick-witted and greener, more
beneficial, more secure and more grounded.
The first National Planning Framework highlighted the significance of place to an advanced
learning economy. Organizations find where they can enroll knowledgeable, capable
individuals and capital stream to spots which have the kind of physical and social framework
which bolsters advancement. Indeed, qualified, imaginative individuals are pulled into spots
which offer an assortment of monetary open doors, a fortifying situation, comforts for an
extensive variety of ways of life and great associations with other top notch places. Effective
spots have solid, positive personalities. They are cosmopolitan, all around associated and
various, offering open doors for an extensive variety of inventive cooperation. The ecological
quality, assembled legacy and social existence of Scotland’s urban communities and towns
are in this way solid monetary resources and arranging approaches must place accentuation
on supporting and upgrading them.
Sustainable improvement is an advancement which addresses the issues of the present
without trading off the capacity of future eras to address their issues. It, accordingly, has
social, monetary and ecological measurements. The Scottish Government’s dedication to
feasible advancement is pondered in its strategies matters, for example, environmental
change, transport, renewable vitality, vitality productivity, squander administration,
biodiversity, and general wellbeing. There is a statutory necessity that the National Planning
Framework ought to add to manageable improvement. Arranging powers have an obligation
to add to reasonable improvement through their advancement arranging capacity.
One of the primary difficulties identifies with environmental change; decreasing the nursery
gas emanations which add to it and adjusting to the adjustments in our surroundings which
are as of now getting to be obvious. The primary wellsprings of outflows are vitality supply,
transport, and business. Outflows from vitality supply and business have fallen essentially
since 1990, yet transport discharges have ascended by 11%. Indeed, even with solid strategies
set up to diminish discharges, some level of environmental change is unavoidable as at
various times outflows affect throughout the following 30 to 40 years (Smith and Brennan,
2012). The fossil fuel which adds to primary nursery gas discharges is a limited asset. A few
examiners anticipate that world oil generation will top before 2020 (Smith and Brennan,
2012). Substantial diminishments in natural gas outflows will be important to minimize the
effects of environmental change. Making no move would have noteworthy unfriendly
consequences for the earth and the ways of life we presently appreciate. In the event that
worldwide move is made now, the most exceedingly awful of these impacts might be dodged.
The progressions required to minimize environmental change and alleviate its effects may
well influence our ways of life, however, they require not effects affect our general personal
satisfaction. Indeed, they may get significant advantages territories, for example, wellbeing,
and natural quality. Transport (barring avionics) represents more than 20% of Scottish
nursery gas outflows and is the quickest developing donor to discharges (Adams, et al. 2012).
Street transport is by a long shot the greatest wellspring of outflows from the vehicle
segment. Substantial dependence on the private auto and the pattern towards more
noteworthy versatility are adding to environmental change, developing clog and the
disintegration of ecological quality. However, there is a solid open agreement for activity to
lessen blockage and the ecological effects of auto utilize.
The decrease of emissions from transport sources will include measures to enhance the
availability of training, work, and benefits and urge a move to more dynamic and
maintainable methods of travel and transport. For individuals, this implies a move from auto
based go to strolling, cycling, and open transport. For merchandise, it implies a move from
street to rail and water. The relationship amongst transport and land utilize is key to this plan.
The Scottish Government bolsters the renewable wellsprings of vitality improvement and has
a higher focus on power created from renewable sources. It likewise needs to see proceeded
with upgrades in vitality effectiveness; the improvement of innovations which get perfect
vitality from fossil fuels; the saddling of renewable wellsprings of warmth; and decentralized
vitality creation, including nearby warmth and power plants and small scale era.
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