Spatial Planning has become something of utmost importance in the present day society. It

provides the real estate companies with a perfect idea about the needs of common populace.

We live in an era of supply and demand. Thus, the limited resources; sex, age and income is

not enough to meet the needs of a consumer. For an utterly successful real estate investment,

one must understand the needs of a consumer. Real estate companies must consider the

factors like the lifestyle, style statement, recreational needs to attract the consumer base. That

is why the spatial planning is required as it gives us the perfect idea about the choices of the

common population.

Spatial planning can be considered as a theory as well as a practice. It has wide range of

theories, Meta theories and middle ranged theories that govern the principles of spatial

planning. But the main challenge is to identify where the concept of spatial planning sits in

this theoretical background and how this theoretical background can be effectively used in

the actual field thereby providing a general outline of the necessary requirements of the

Spatial Planning Policy or (SPP) as it is often abbreviated as in the national context.

The Spatial Planning was formally introduced to Scotland with the passing of the Planning

and Compulsory Purchase Act (Scotland) in the year 2004 (Adams, Cotella& Nunes, 2012).

Although there was an idea of spatial planning but this was the first time when it was brought

up in the context of the nation. This Spatial planning reform of 2004 made a significant

change in the style of planning in Scotland and turned the planning policy of the local

governance from a bunch of textbook rules to a fully functional and optimal delivery system.

In this paper, we shall try to unravel the concept of spatial planning and its significance in the

planning policies of a nation thereby identifying the requirements of the successful

implementation of Spatial Planning Policy or SPP in the infrastructure of a nation.


Theories vary from type to type thus variation also comes in their roles. Everything that has

been written about spatial planning can be called “intuitionism” or normative, which is

fixated on identifying what the spatial planning policies ought to be by basing the judgement

on the moral facts and equitable principles (Alexander, 2009).

There is another approach to the spatial planning which is based on the facts and regulations

of political dimensions.  This theoretical approach describes  the Spatial planning as a

structuralism way of planning. This approach argues that the outcome of every planning

process has a redistributive nature in relation to the class and power distribution. This way to

deal with planning hypothesis does not focus on the process but instead judges whether it has

been fruitful inside its hypothetical structure. Those examining spatial planning hypothesis

inside a political setting are more worried to take a gander at the cooperation between spatial

planning and the levels of conveyance practiced inside it by political process (Massey et al.

2003; Sandercock 2003; Friedmann 2005). This theoretical approach engulfs in it all formal

as well as informal political processes along with all the interests of power for those owning

properties and major capitals. As per the hypothetical positions, spatial planning is for the

most part set inside the regulating mode, although much of the time neglecting to meet the

normal results of coordinating multi-scalar activities.

Spatial Planning  gives the land organizations an impeccable thought regarding the

requirements of the people. We live in a period of free market activity(citation needed).Along

these lines, the ordinary variables like sex, age and wage are insufficient to address the issues

of a shopper. For an absolutely fruitful land wander, one must comprehend the necessities of

a buyer. Land organizations must consider the variables like the way of life, style articulation,

recreational necessities, to pull in the buyer base. That is the reason the spatial planning is

required as it gives us the ideal thought regarding the decisions of the people living in those


Spatial planning can be considered as a hypothesis and additionally a practice. Be that as it

may, the primary test is to distinguish where the idea of spatial planning  sits in this

hypothetical foundation and how this hypothetical foundation can be adequately utilized as a

part of the real field along these lines giving a general diagram of the essential necessities of

the Spatial Planning Policy or SPP as it is frequently condensed as in the national setting

(Wilson & Piper, 2010).

The Spatial Planning was formally acquainted with the way of life of Scotland with the death

of the Planning and Compulsory Purchase Act (Scotland) in the year 2004 (Adams, Cotella &

Nunes, 2012). In spite of the fact that there was a thought of spatial planning yet, this was the

first run through when it was raised with regards to the country. This Spatial planning change

of 2004 rolled out a huge improvement in the style of planning in Scotland and turned the

planning approach of the nearby administration from a cluster of course book standards to a

highly functional and optimal delivery framework (Adams, Cotella & Nunes, 2012).

In this paper, we should attempt to unwind the idea of spatial planning and its worthiness in

planning  arrangements of a country subsequently distinguishing the prerequisites of the

fruitful usage of Spatial Planning Policy or SPP in the foundation of a country. In this

procedure, we might totally concentrate on the spatial planning arrangements of Scotlandand

will attempt to comprehend and break down the degree up to which these criteria are

accomplished by the planning arrangement of the administration of Scotland. To complete

this essay report, we would be discussing about the importance of Spatial planning, its benefit

(social economic and environmental). It is also important to discuss the need of effective

spatial planning in a nation and the reasons for the effective spatial planning system for

Scotland. These discussions has been divided into sub headings and it has been briefly

discussed under such headings.

Spatial Planning and its importance

Spatial Planning is the term that deals with “the constraints of integration or cooperation of

the spatial facet of the developmental policies through a land-based strategy” (Cullingworth,

Nadin; 2006:91).

It is something more complex than simple land alocation and use; it deals with the policies of

different sectors regarding territories, environmental issues, aesthetic value of a place and

several other issues. The main reason behind the spatial planning is to provide a more rational

and transparent way of planning policies and to promote the settlement of competing targets.

Although the reasons or extent of the spatial planning differs from one nation to another but

the basic motive behind it always remain the same. In all most every country the term spatial

planning is synonymous with the identification of the long and short-term objectives of the

planning policies for their territories, the land use policies and development of certain sectors

of the local government and the cooperative sector policies like transportation, environmental

issues and agriculture. (Koresawa & Konvitz, 2001)

The Scottish Government defines the spatial planning as a way of going beyond the

traditional land use planning in order to integrate innovative polices for mass development

and land use which can produce a positive impact on the environment and core functioning of

a particular place (Alexander, 2009).

A nation can derive three major benefits from the spatial planning which are; Social benefits,

economic benefits and environmental benefits. Let’s review these benefits individually to

understand the requirements of an effective spatial planning policy:

Social Benefits

During spatial planning local communities are being considered while developing policies

and their implementation. Consideration of the accessibility to the people while developing a

new location. For example: The convenience of the location to the people in terms of

transportation, distance from their work place and how easily can they reach the newly

developed location is considered during the planning process. Development of the

infrastructure of the local facilities by solving the problems they are facing. Helping the

initiative of creating a safe, peaceful and healthy environment (Allmendinger & Haughton,

2009) is also a social benefit which can be derived out of spatial planning.

Economic Benefits

Spatial planning provides multitude of economical benefits to the society. Creating a stable

socio-economic condition for fostering new investments is one of the main aim behind the

spatial planning process. Identifying the lands in new secured locations to bolster the

economic development can be achieved through a proper planning procedure. Ensuring the

community and the investors that the land is in good location in relation to the transportation

chain and labours is an important task that effective spatial planning performs. Analysing the

needs of the local community and facilitating proper development to meet their requirements.

Promotion of renewal as well as regeneration is an important aspect of spatial planning

process. Facilitating the process of taking decisions in a more consistent as well as efficient

way can be achieved through spatial planning process (Erbe, MacGillivray & Williams,


Environmental Benefits

Encouraging the regeneration or renewal and proper usage of lands, buildings or

infrastructures is one of the main aims of effective spatial planning. Encouraging the use of

brown-field lands for the development purposes rather than taking on Greenfield lands can be

enhanced with effective spatial planning.  Conservation of the assets of great historical,

environmental or cultural importance is an important benefit that can be derived. Providing a

much better protection against the natural  disasters  or great environmental risks like

degradation of air quality and floods can be ensured if an effective spatial planning process

can be achieved. Ensuring the proper protection and development of the recreational sites and

natural heritages is of utmost importance and can only be achieved through spatial planning

procedures. Ensuring the proper access to all kinds of developments by every mode of

transportation rather than just relying on the cars. Promoting the energy efficiency in he

blueprints and designs of the new developments (Erbe, MacGillivray & Williams, 2012).

Need for effective spatial planning in a nation

An effective spatial planning provides the community several benefits. It helps in creating a

better and safer environment for everyone to live. The spatial planning promotes the proper

development of the transportation and land use thereby increasing the facilities for the local

communities to prosper (Gordon &Barron, 2011).

Effective spatial planning is required to give vision and reliable bearing, and in addition, a

vital evaluation of what is attractive as well as what is conceivable in different settings; to

secure the privileges of individuals. When common people gain access to the developing,

basically they get certain rights and commitments. It is important to oversee change in a

manner that those rights and commitments are regarded.

Spatial Planning is something of great importance because it ensures common frameworks.

Characteristic frameworks have their own particular operational prerequisites which must be

regarded if long haul reasonable human advancement is to be accomplished and if substantial

scale environment debasement is to be maintained a strategic distance from or if nothing else

minimized (Kelly, et al 2014), which means that only through a proper spatial planning

process true progress of the society towards a better future can be achieved.

Effective spatial planning is of uttermost need to make productive utilization of assets.

Assets, for example, lands, water, vitality, fund, building materials, abilities, and so forth are

hard to find. Those that are accessible must, in all unique situations, be utilized wisely to

guarantee that greatest advantage is acquired from them; to accomplish a higher nature of

administration convenience by all circles of government.

A nation needs effective spatial planning to arrange activities and investments to guarantee

greatest positive effect from the speculation of assets, it is important to organize activities and

interests in time and space. This coordination is of two sorts: the coordination of various

types of open power activities and speculations, and a more prominent coordination amongst

open and private activities; to set needs. To empower noteworthy advances to be made in

meeting the formative needs of the nation reasonably, it is important to give a judicious

premise to prioritization and to oversee and guide assets to where they are required most

(Lloyd & Purves, 2009); to avoid duplication of the policies of various departments and

circles of government.

Reasons for the effective spatial planning system for any national context

The researchers of spatial planning have highlighted the following requirements for effective

spatial planning are to accomplish a more noteworthy blend of land uses and developments in

the city structure that give a full scope of development of the urban capacities – lodging,

business, and administrations – as an example which minimizes the need to travel incredible

distances to work, shop or business organisations. The effective utilization of land should be

good with the social prosperity and healthy environment of the recreational destinations

(Morphet, 2010).

Spatial Planning requires starting urban development in the poorly developed parts of city

territories and major roads with high-traffic centralizations of people from different sectors of

work such as  private and public sectors as well as local residents. These regions with

sufficient interest in modernization  and renovation of the current scenario  as well as

infrastructure can give housing facilities nearer to the work place and a more extensive scope

of the way of various life styles (Moseley, 2013).

To achieve an effective spatial planning process, it is required to upgrade and bolster

recovery of lodging homes through innovative financing, innovative and administrative

activities, and showing investments. Concentrating on the end of obstructions towards

investment will encourage little scale urban reestablishment through different endeavours and


Nations need to upgrade expensive investment, enhance group inclusion and regulatory

empowerment for demonstrative planning approaches and projects; to promote the identity of

communities through the development of meeting spots, open spaces, pedestrian systems,

protection of memorable structures and appealing streetscapes for achieving an effective

spatial planning module.

To give a scope of social and recreational opportunities to the communitywhich is as

important as various other needs through the effective utilization of natural territories for

passive amusement and social purposes; to keep up an arrangement of coordinated and

interconnected open spaces, parks, stream valleys, and waterfronts; to ensure the protection

of the common natural surroundings and assets in these areas  is the one of the main

requirements of effective spatial planning (Tewdwr-Jones, Gallent & Morphet, 2010).

To provide proper water and sewerage infrastructure that suits the requirements of the local

community, while meeting the sound environment objectives; to attempt the impressive

change of existing framework to lessen the measure of untreated urban overflow and

wastewater release; to expand the limit of the current framework to oblige urban development

and escalation is also required for proper planning.

Countries need to enhance and extend the transportation framework to meet the requirements

of rearrangement in the urban economy and to maintain the competitiveness of the public

transport. To boost productivity, supplement customary  public  transport  with particular

administrative measures coordinated at particular market places; to develop energy efficiency

and other modes of transport (Smith, et al 2011).

Necessary Criteria for effective spatial planning for any nation

There are some necessary criteria for achieving maximum efficiency in the spatial planning

for any nation. The criteria are:

Tools for planning

All nations require a base arrangement of planning instruments that empower successful and

reasonable administration of spatial improvement on the premise of concurred criteria. In

several countried past ways of dealing with planning are currently thought to be too much

definite and prescriptive, utilizing a top-down, far-reaching approach that expect a doubtful

level of open control over the private activity. These unbending arrangements are hard to get

ready and stay up with the latest. They require escalated inputs and restrain planning powers

reacting properly to open doors as they emerge (Smith, et al 2011). The key is to accomplish

a proper harmony amongst duty and adaptability – knowing which needs should be tended to

quickly and which needs could be met over a more extended course of events. The

apparatuses must work in an integral and predictable approach to guarantee both a proactive

and facilitated way to deal with overseeing advancement and reasonableness, responsibility

and straightforwardness in the basic leadership handle. It is especially essential that planning

instruments (arrangements) are viewed as corporate records possessed by all divisions of

government and as opposed to as an outside inconvenience. This implies they should be set

up in an open and community way.

Legislative Framework

Numerous nations have made essential changes to the assemblage of planning law in the

course of the most recent decade to empower critical changes to the shape and operation of

their planning frameworks. For instance, Ireland, the Netherlands, Slovenia and the United

Kingdom have of late sanctioned huge changes to planning law (Morphet, 2010). Be that as it

may, in a few nations planning  statutes have not kept pace with the truth of spatial

improvement and the weights on the framework. The issue is however not the absence of

enactment but instead that it is no more drawn out pertinent. The lawful prerequisites for

specific arrangements and methods (which are regularly goal-oriented) might be out of an

investment with what is really required, in this way bringing about lost validity for the spatial

planning framework and the ensuing diminishment of the benefit of planning exercises. Now

and again, change of planning law has not been a major requirement. For instance, where

enactment has focused on monetary change or matters identifying with EU promotion, viable

activity on spatial improvement at the sum total of what levels has been extremely impeded

in light of the fact that the essential lawful building squares to encourage compelling spatial


planning are not set up (Counsell, et al 2006).

Proper decision making process

Strategies and choices ought to regress wherever conceivable and be made cooperatively with

nearby partners and financial specialists. Regardless, there are basic issues that should be

chosen in a top-down way, hence guaranteeing definitive and unambiguous results. This

might be required to address a pressing issue, an issue of global centrality or undesirable

theoretical movement, or to convey a conclusion to neighbourhood debate and strife.

Illustrations may incorporate the need to: secure a territory of the basic normal capital, take

up a noteworthy internal investment opportunity, shield legacy resources from theoretical

exercises, or encourage a choice on a noteworthy vitality foundation advancement. There will

likewise be events when focal, best down choices are required in light of a legitimate concern

for decency to all, for example, on account of forcing basic advancement to arrive charges

over a whole nation.

National and local choices of this kind should tie on all levels and with all on-screen

characters and to take after a procedure that guarantees responsibility. These choices ought to

regard concurred arrangement proclamations wherever conceivable and be joined by clear

clarifications when they don’t. All levels of government ought to be offered a chance to have

an impact in the basic leadership prepare, e.g. through discussion on real foundation

investments, or through the chance to give prove where requests are being considered. Law

and arrangement need to clarify the criteria by which powers at the national level may

mediate in territorial and neighbourhood choices. For the most part, focal mediation in

choices regularly made at lower levels will be constrained to matters of national and

worldwide criticalness or issues of potential national contention (Smith, & Brennan, 2012).

Environmental Assessment

An environmental assessment is a deliberate way to deal with measuring the ecological

effects of  various development processes. Environmental assessment  of development

processes and projects measures the manageability of those development works. In a few

nations, ecological evaluations interface financial and social ramifications of undertakings or

arrangements with the physical impacts that the development work is probably going to have

on the earth (Scottish Government Riaghaltas na h-Alba gov.scot, 2011).

In any of these structures, an ecological appraisal is an essential device for strategy

reconciliation. It can confirm if plans and projects are in congruity with each other, and

especially with national practical improvement targets. Ecological appraisal and vital natural

evaluation are presently regular practice for advancement activities, arranges, and programs

in a few nations. Much direction has been distributed on the most proficient method to lead

these procedures in ways that guarantee that they are a vital part of the basic leadership

handle and not a reconsideration to meet prerequisites (Shucksmith, et al, 2014). A few

nations have embraced ecological pay strategies that urge advancement to continue in a more

maintainable manner. It guarantees that all huge improvement meets the natural costs it

forces, by requiring repaying ecological speculation so that the net general impact is

nonpartisan, if not positive.

The ecological appraisal prepares for investments requires huge ability, assets, and

information. In any case, the general rule of assessing natural effects could be embraced in

less difficult structures utilizing proficient judgment. Where there is vulnerability about

effects or where there are inquiries that require more itemized evaluation, the preparatory

approach ought to be received. That is an improvement with possibly noteworthy unfriendly

ecological results that can’t be repaid ought to be maintained a strategic distance from or

occupied. A few nations have effectively adopted up to the general examination strategy and

apply it to a more standard advancements through straightforward agendas. Engineers can

contribute altogether to the environmental assessment handle by giving skill, data or assets

for the assessment (Shucksmith, et al, 2014).

Economic Infrastructure

The reason for spatial planning is to add to the conveyance of the results required by society

stronger economies for the local communities, more feasible improvement and a superior

personal satisfaction. Planning can finish these objectives by making and focusing investment

enthusiasm, enhancing and shielding area and property estimations, lessening dangers for

speculation by giving conviction, by tending to the externality impacts of existing and new

advancement. An essential strategy for execution is the control work – where it adds to the

conveyance of methodologies and planning systems. To expand the impact of execution

assignments, spatial planning frameworks should likewise grasp proactive components that

guarantee examples of improvement adding to these objectives (Shucksmith, et al, 2014). The

planning devices ought to supplement other financial instruments that convey improvement.

Coordination among divisions is especially essential. Monetary advancement and ecological

offices, specifically, should work cooperatively on spatial planning techniques. Encounter

proposes that there might be little attention to spatial planning in the monetary improvement

area, which is essentially intrigued by sectorial issues, for example, the formation of numbers

and sorts of employments or preparing places and additionally the amplifying productivity of

conveyance of merchandise and enterprises  (Shucksmith, 2010). Be that as it may, a

compelling spatial planning methodology can enhance their investments by centralising and

consolidating exercises and organizing the regional measurement of advancement, including

the successful utilization of open land resources. The spatial planning framework ought to be

coordinated to recognize and address execution hindrances, particularly where this is

identified with organizing the exercises of various sectored partners in giving foundation.

Forces of mandatory obtaining of land and property ought to be firmly connected to receive

the spatial techniques and arrangements.

Spatial planning  can  influence financial values in land and property by empowering

investment, accordingly expanding the sureness speculators look for (Alexander, et al 2012).

New advancement can be utilized to give more extensive group and business benefits by

recovering and consolidating an extent of improvement esteem from various plans. This can

likewise guarantee that new improvement mitigates or makes up for its roundabout

consequences for different organizations and the nearby economy, by managing effect and

advancement pay expenses.


How the effective spatial planning is being achieved in the Scotland?

The spatial planning policies in Scotland are the most advanced among the nations of the

United Kingdom. The development of spatial planning policies has always been directed

towards modernising and ensuring the solutions for all the Scottish issues (Allmendinger

2009; Lloyd & Purves 2009).

The dream of effective spatial planning in Scotland is becoming reality by following the

directives of National Planning Framework (NPF2). The focal motivation behind the Scottish

Government is to increment practical monetary development. The Government Economic

Strategy (GES) clarifies that money related and different assets will be adjusted to guarantee

that approach advancement and spending projects are strongly centered around

accomplishing that reason and the testing focuses on the Government has set on the economic

strategies. This Framework takes forward the spatial parts of the Government Economic

Strategy, to guarantee that every part of the nation can play to its qualities in building a

Scotland that is wealthier and more attractive, more quick-witted and greener, more

beneficial, more secure and more grounded.

The first National Planning Framework highlighted the significance of place to an advanced

learning economy. Organizations find where they can enroll knowledgeable, capable

individuals and capital stream to spots which have the kind of physical and social framework

which bolsters advancement. Indeed, qualified, imaginative individuals are pulled into spots

which offer an assortment of monetary open doors, a fortifying situation, comforts for an

extensive variety of ways of life and great associations with other top notch places. Effective

spots have solid, positive personalities. They are cosmopolitan, all around associated and

various, offering open doors for an extensive variety of inventive cooperation. The ecological

quality, assembled legacy and social existence of Scotland’s urban communities and towns

are in this way solid monetary resources and arranging approaches must place accentuation

on supporting and upgrading them.

Sustainable improvement is an advancement which addresses the issues of the present

without trading off the capacity of future eras to address their issues. It, accordingly, has

social, monetary and ecological measurements. The Scottish Government’s dedication to

feasible advancement is pondered in its strategies matters, for example, environmental

change, transport, renewable vitality, vitality productivity, squander administration,

biodiversity, and general wellbeing. There is a statutory necessity that the National Planning

Framework ought to add to manageable improvement. Arranging powers have an obligation

to add to reasonable improvement through their advancement arranging capacity.

One of the primary difficulties identifies with environmental change; decreasing the nursery

gas emanations which add to it and adjusting to the adjustments in our surroundings which

are as of now getting to be obvious. The primary wellsprings of outflows are vitality supply,

transport, and business. Outflows from vitality supply and business have fallen essentially

since 1990, yet transport discharges have ascended by 11%. Indeed, even with solid strategies

set up to diminish discharges, some level of environmental change is unavoidable as at

various times outflows affect throughout the following 30 to 40 years (Smith and Brennan,

2012). The fossil fuel which adds to primary nursery gas discharges is a limited asset. A few

examiners anticipate that world oil generation will top before 2020 (Smith and Brennan,

2012). Substantial diminishments in natural gas outflows will be important to minimize the

effects of environmental change. Making no move would have noteworthy unfriendly

consequences for the earth and the ways of life we presently appreciate. In the event that

worldwide move is made now, the most exceedingly awful of these impacts might be dodged.

The progressions required to minimize environmental change and alleviate its effects may

well influence our ways of life, however, they require not effects affect our general personal

satisfaction. Indeed, they may get significant advantages territories, for example, wellbeing,

and natural quality. Transport (barring avionics) represents more than 20% of Scottish

nursery gas outflows and is the quickest developing donor to discharges (Adams, et al. 2012).

Street transport is by a long shot the greatest wellspring of outflows from the vehicle

segment. Substantial dependence on the private auto and the pattern towards more

noteworthy versatility are adding to environmental change, developing clog and the

disintegration of ecological quality. However, there is a solid open agreement for activity to

lessen blockage and the ecological effects of auto utilize.

The decrease of emissions from transport sources will include measures to enhance the

availability of training, work, and benefits and urge a move to more dynamic and

maintainable methods of travel and transport. For individuals, this implies a move from auto

based go to strolling, cycling, and open transport. For merchandise, it implies a move from

street to rail and water. The relationship amongst transport and land utilize is key to this plan.

The Scottish Government bolsters the renewable wellsprings of vitality improvement and has

a higher focus on power created from renewable sources. It likewise needs to see proceeded

with upgrades in vitality effectiveness; the improvement of innovations which get perfect

vitality from fossil fuels; the saddling of renewable wellsprings of warmth; and decentralized

vitality creation, including nearby warmth and power plants and small scale era.


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Alexander, K.A., Janssen, R., Arciniegas, G., O’Higgins, T.G., Eikelboom, T. and Wilding,

T.A., 2012. Interactive marine spatial planning: siting tidal energy arrays around the Mull of

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metagovernance: the new spatial planning in the Thames Gateway. Environment and

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Erbe, C., MacGillivray, A. and Williams, R., 2012. Mapping cumulative noise from shipping

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marine spatial planning in the Shetland Islands. Marine Policy, 46, pp.152-160.

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